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Copyright © 2013, 2015, 2019, 2022 Protogate, Inc.
This Ports, Protocols, and Services (PPS) Document describes the inputs and outputs of a Protogate Freeway® .
The latest version of this document is always available, in a variety of formats and compression options, from the Protogate World Wide Web server.
This document can change without notice. Protogate, Inc. accepts no liability for any errors this document might contain.
Freeway is a registered trademark of Protogate, Inc. All other trademarks and trade names are the properties of their respective holders.
This Ports, Protocols, and Services (PPS) document identifies the inputs and outputs to/from a Protogate Freeway® .
This document should be read by anyone who wants a better understanding about I/O connections to a Protogate Freeway .
This document is organized into the following major sections:
The following general product documentation list is provided to familiarize you with the available Protogate Freeway and embedded ICP products. Most of these documents are available on-line at Protogate's website. Additional information about documents which are specifically referenced by this Ports, Protocols, and Services (PPS) document are in Chapter 2 of this document.
|Freeway 1100 Technical Overview||25-000-0419|
|Freeway 2000/4000/8800 Technical Overview||25-000-0374|
|ICP2432 Technical Overview||25-000-0420|
|ICP6000X Technical Overview||25-000-0522|
|Freeway 500 Hardware Installation Guide||DC-900-2000|
|Freeway 1100/1150 Hardware Installation Guide||DC-900-1370|
|Freeway 1200/1300 Hardware Installation Guide||DC-900-1537|
|Freeway 2000/4000 Hardware Installation Guide||DC-900-1331|
|Freeway 8800 Hardware Installation Guide||DC-900-1553|
|Freeway 3100 Hardware Installation Guide||DC-900-2002|
|Freeway 3200 Hardware Installation Guide||DC-900-2003|
|Freeway 3400 Hardware Installation Guide||DC-900-2004|
|Freeway 3600 Hardware Installation Guide||DC-900-2005|
|Freeway 3110 Hardware Installation Guide||DC-900-2012|
|Freeway 3210 Hardware Installation Guide||DC-900-2013|
|Freeway 3410 Hardware Installation Guide||DC-900-2014|
|Freeway 3610 Hardware Installation Guide||DC-900-2015|
|Freeway 3112 Hardware Installation Guide||DC-900-2016|
|Freeway 3212 Hardware Installation Guide||DC-900-2017|
|Freeway 3412 Hardware Installation Guide||DC-900-2018|
|Freeway 3612 Hardware Installation Guide||DC-900-2019|
|Freeway 3114 Hardware Installation Guide||DC-900-2026|
|Freeway 3214 Hardware Installation Guide||DC-900-2027|
|Freeway 3414 Hardware Installation Guide||DC-900-2028|
|Freeway 214 Hardware Installation Guide||DC-900-2030|
|Freeway 3414/3414R Hardware Maintenance Guide||DC-900-2031|
|Freeway 3115 Hardware Installation Guide||DC-900-2032|
|Freeway 3215 Hardware Installation Guide||DC-900-2033|
|Freeway 3415 Hardware Installation Guide||DC-900-2034|
|Freeway 215 Hardware Installation Guide||DC-900-2035|
|Freeway ICP6000R/ICP6000X Hardware Description||DC-900-1020|
|ICP6000(X)/ICP9000(X) Hardware Description and Theory of Operation||DC-900-0408|
|ICP2424 Hardware Description and Theory of Operation||DC-900-1328|
|ICP2432 Hardware Description and Theory of Operation||DC-900-1501|
|ICP2432 Electrical Interfaces (Addendum to DC-900-1501)||DC-900-1566|
|ICP2432 Hardware Installation Guide||DC-900-1502|
|ICP2432B Hardware Installation Guide||DC-900-2009|
|Freeway User Guide||DC-900-1333|
|Freeway Loopback Test Procedures||DC-900-1533|
|Freeway Release Addendum: Client Platforms||DC-900-1555|
|Freeway Message Switch User Guide||DC-900-1588|
|Freeway Software Requirements Specification (SRS)||DC-900-2021|
|Freeway Ports, Protocols, and Services (PPS)||DC-900-2022|
|Freeway Software Version Description (SVD)||DC-900-2023|
|Freeway Lifecycle Support Plan (LSP)||DC-900-2024|
|Freeway Security Features User's Guide (SFUG)||DC-908-3004|
|Freeway Security Target (ST)||DC-908-3005|
|ICP2432 User Guide for Digital UNIX||DC-900-1513|
|ICP2432 User Guide for OpenVMS Alpha||DC-900-1511|
|ICP2432 User Guide for OpenVMS Alpha (DLITE Interface)||DC-900-1516|
|ICP2432 User Guide for Solaris STREAMS||DC-900-1512|
|ICP2432 User Guide for Windows NT||DC-900-1510|
|ICP2432 User Guide for Windows NT (DLITE Interface)||DC-900-1514|
|Freeway Data Link Interface Reference Guide||DC-900-1385|
|Freeway Transport Subsystem Interface Reference Guide||DC-900-1386|
|QIO/SQIO API Reference Guide||DC-900-1355|
|Freeway Server‑Resident Application (SRA) Programmer Guide||DC-900-1325|
|OS/Impact Programmer Guide||DC-900-1030|
|Freeway OS/Protogate Programmer's Guide||DC-900-2008|
|Protocol Software Toolkit Programmer Guide||DC-900-1338|
|Protocol Software Toolkit Programmer's Guide (ICP2432B)||DC-900-2007|
|ADCCP NRM Programmer Guide||DC-900-1317|
|Asynchronous Wire Service (AWS) Programmer Guide||DC-900-1324|
|AUTODIN Programmer Guide||DC-908-1558|
|Bit-Stream Protocol Programmer Guide||DC-900-1574|
|BSC Programmer Guide||DC-900-1340|
|BSCDEMO User Guide||DC-900-1349|
|BSCTRAN Programmer Guide||DC-900-1406|
|DDCMP Programmer Guide||DC-900-1343|
|Military/Government Protocols Programmer Guide||DC-900-1602|
|N/SP-STD-1200B Programmer Guide||DC-908-1359|
|NASCOM Programmer's Guide||DC-900-2010|
|SIO STD-1300 Programmer Guide||DC-908-1559|
|TIMI Programmer's Guide||DC-900-2011|
|X.25 Call Service API Guide||DC-900-1392|
|X.25/HDLC Configuration Guide||DC-900-1345|
|X.25 Low-Level Interface||DC-900-1307|
In this document, the term "Freeway" refers both to the Freeway software, and generically to all current Freeway models: the Freeway 3115, 3215, 3415 and 215 -- and also to earlier Freeway models such as the Freeway 3114, the Freeway 3214, the Freeway 3414, the Freeway 3112, the Freeway 3212, the Freeway 3412, and the Freeway 3612.
The revision history of the Freeway Ports, Protocols, and Services (PPS), Protogate document DC 900-2022, is recorded below:
Table 1. Revision History
|DC 900-2022A||October, 2013||Initial Release|
|DC 900-2022B||November, 2013||Added descriptions of TCP and UDP ports|
|DC 900-2022C||September, 2015||Updated for Freeway 7.1-2.|
|DC 900-2022D||October, 2019||Updated for Freeway 8.2-0.|
|DC 900-2022E||May, 2022||Updated for Freeway 9.0-0.|
If you are having trouble with any Protogate product, call us at 1-858-451-0865 (U.S.) Monday through Friday between 8 a.m. and 5 p.m. Pacific time. You can email your questions to us at email@example.com at any time.
This document describes the Inputs and Outputs of a Protogate Freeway® .
The Protogate Freeway is a data communication system which connects one or more serial link channels of various types to one or more IP (Internet Protocol) networks. The Freeway acts as a gateway, providing serial link channel access to clients on the IP network.
All Protogate Freeways run custom-built software which is written and provided by Protogate, and which completely controls the Freeway. The Freeway software is based on a version of the FreeBSD operating system which has been modified to control one or more Protogate Intelligent Communications Processor (ICP) boards. ICP boards are Protogate-manufactured boards which can be installed into a Freeway chassis, plugged into one or more serial-link channels, and configured to implement a data communications protocol. Each ICP board installed into a Freeway provides 2, 4, or 8 serial link ports.
This document describes the Inputs and Outputs of a Protogate Freeway® . This document is not sensitive or private, and may be disseminated as widely as desired, with no restrictions.
A full list of Protogate documents is in the Preface Section of this document.
Documents referenced by this Ports, Protocols, and Services (PPS) document are listed in Table 2-1.
Table 2-1. Referenced Documents
|DC-900-1303||Freeway Client-Server Interface Control Document||C||Dec, 1999|
|DC-900-1324||Asynchronous Wire Services (AWS) Programmer's Guide||I||Sep, 2011|
|DC-900-1333||Freeway User's Guide||Q||Sep, 2013|
|DC-900-1385||Freeway Data Link Interface (DLI) Reference Guide||E||Mar, 2002|
|DC-900-1386||Freeway Transport Subsystem Interface (TSI) Reference Guide||D||Mar, 2002|
|DC-900-2016||Freeway 3112 Hardware Installation Guide||A||Sep, 2011|
|DC-900-2017||Freeway 3212 Hardware Installation Guide||A||Sep, 2011|
|DC-900-2018||Freeway 3412 Hardware Installation Guide||A||Sep, 2011|
|DC-900-2019||Freeway 3612 Hardware Installation Guide||A||Sep, 2011|
|DC-900-2026||Freeway 3114 Hardware Installation Guide||B||Sep, 2015|
|DC-900-2027||Freeway 3214 Hardware Installation Guide||B||Sep, 2015|
|DC-900-2028||Freeway 3414 Hardware Installation Guide||C||Sep, 2015|
|DC-900-2032||Freeway 3115 Hardware Installation Guide||A||Feb, 2021|
|DC-900-2033||Freeway 3215 Hardware Installation Guide||A||Feb, 2021|
|DC-900-2034||Freeway 3415 Hardware Installation Guide||A||Feb, 2021|
|DC-900-2035||Freeway 215 Hardware Installation Guide||A||Feb, 2021|
This chapter describes the physical I/O ports available on a Freeway (Section 3.1 through Section 3.6), and the IP (Internet Protocol) ports which Freeways are usually configured to support (Section 3.7).
There are several different types of physical ports: a serial console port, a VGA video port, a PS/2 keyboard port, one or more USB ports, one or more Ethernet (IP) ports, and two or more ICP (serial link) ports. There is also an unused female DB-25 on the rear of each Freeway chassis; this is the connector for a parallel printer port, but it is not supported in any way by the Freeway software, and cannot be read from or written to.
For more information about any of these physical ports on a particular Freeway model, refer to the Hardware Installation Guide for that model:
DC-900-2016: Freeway 3112 Hardware Installation Guide
DC-900-2017: Freeway 3212 Hardware Installation Guide
DC-900-2018: Freeway 3412 Hardware Installation Guide
DC-900-2019: Freeway 3612 Hardware Installation Guide
DC-900-2026: Freeway 3114 Hardware Installation Guide
DC-900-2027: Freeway 3214 Hardware Installation Guide
DC-900-2028: Freeway 3414 Hardware Installation Guide
DC-900-2032: Freeway 3115 Hardware Installation Guide
DC-900-2033: Freeway 3215 Hardware Installation Guide
DC-900-2034: Freeway 3415 Hardware Installation Guide
DC-900-2035: Freeway 215 Hardware Installation Guide
Each Freeway model provides one serial console connection, as a male DB-9 on the rear of the Freeway chassis. This connection uses the EIA-232 electrical interface and a standard asynchronous protocol with 8 data bits, no parity bit, and 1 stop bit, full-duplex, at 9600 bits per second. The service provided by this port is direct login access: a serial terminal such as a VT-100 can be connected to this DB-9 connector, and the VT-100 can then be used for console-level access to the Freeway (a login prompt will appear on the VT-100 when the Freeway is booted, and a user can login and execute commands). A software terminal program such as tip (in Unix) or hyperterm (in Windows) can be used instead of a VT-100, if desired. See the Freeway User's Guide, Protogate document DC-900-1333, for more details.
Each Freeway model provides one VGA connection, as a 3-row female DB-15 on the rear of the Freeway chassis. A VGA monitor can be plugged into this connector, and used to view status displays of the early boot sequence processing of the Freeway. In addition, the VGA monitor will display a login prompt when the Freeway is booted, and if a keyboard is plugged into either the keyboard connector or one of the USB connectors, then a user can login and execute commands, using the keyboard and VGA monitor. See the Freeway User's Guide, Protogate document DC-900-1333, for more details.
Each Freeway model provides one PS/2 keyboard connection, which is a round 6-pin mini-DIN connector on the rear of the Freeway chassis. A PS/2 keyboard can be plugged into this connector, and used to login to the Freeway (a VGA monitor must also be plugged into the Freeway to see the results of what is typed on the keyboard). See the Freeway User's Guide, Protogate document DC-900-1333, for more details.
Each Freeway model provides one or more USB ports, which can be used to connect a USB keyboard (the BIOS is normally configured to deny use of anything other than a keyboard, in all USB ports). These USB ports are on the rear of the Freeway chassis, and some Freeway models also include USB ports on the front of the chassis. When a USB keyboard is plugged into this connector, that keyboard can be used to login to the Freeway (a VGA monitor must also be plugged into the Freeway to see the results of what is typed on the keyboard). See the Freeway User's Guide, Protogate document DC-900-1333, for more details.
Each Freeway model has one or more Ethernet connections. These are RJ-45 sockets, in the rear of the Freeway chassis. These provide 802.3-standard Ethernet ports for the Freeway, at 10baseT/UTP (half-duplex or full-duplex), 100baseTX (half-duplex or full-duplex), 1000baseSX (full-duplex only), or 1000baseTX (full-duplex only). These RJ-45 Ethernet sockets can be configured as IP connections to the Freeway, either with their own IP address, or as failover connections, which become active only when another, primary IP connection, fails or is disconnected. See Section 3.7 for descriptions of the TCP/IP and UDP/IP ports and services which may be implemented on a Freeway's IP network.
Freeways can be built to include one or more ICP (Intelligent Communications Processor) boards. When installed into a Freeway, each ICP board adds support for 2, 4, or 8 serial data communication ports. These ports are configured by the Freeway to support one of a variety of serial-link protocols; the Freeway configures each ICP board by downloading software into it which implements the desired protocol.
Once downloaded and initialized, each serial link port on an ICP board can be individually configured for a wide variety of electrical interfaces, data rates, encoding types, etc., and is then available to be used by clients to send or receive data, via whatever methods the protocol allows. The clients which send and receive data through the ICP board ports may reside within the Freeway, or they may reside on another machine on the network, and connect to the Freeway across the Ethernet (IP) network, using the service described in Section 3.7.8. See the Freeway User's Guide, Protogate document DC-900-1333, for general information about the ICP serial link ports, and any of Protogate's specific protocol documents (for example, the Asynchronous Wire Service (AWS) Programmer's Guide, Protogate document DC-900-1324), for details about a particular protocol.
Freeways usually have several IP (Internet Protocol) ports open, with one or more daemons listening for clients to connect on those ports. Some Freeways also have processes which use the IP network to connect to IP ports on other servers. This section describes those IP ports and the services that use them.
The following list of IP ports includes those which are commonly open or used on Freeways. However, this list is not exclusive or exhaustive; any or all of the ports listed here may be disabled or blocked on any specific Freeway, and other ports not listed here may be enabled. The specific configuration of each Freeway must be checked to determine which ports are open and useable on that Freeway. To discover directly which IP ports are open or in use on a specific Freeway, login to the Freeway and run the sockstat command. And to find which IP ports are blocked by the Freeway firewall, run the ipfw show command.
Some Freeway systems have custom-written SRA (Server Resident Application) daemons running. SRAs usually open and listen on one or two TCP/IP ports, which are used by clients to connect to that SRA to send commands to it, and to send and receive data. Those TCP/IP ports are specific to those Freeway systems, and are not included or described here.
Note: TCP/IP port 21 is open on most Freeway systems, though on secured Freeways the FTP daemon is configured to allow only RFC2228-compliant FTP-TLS or FTP-SSL encrypted connections.
Most Freeways are configured to listen on TCP/IP port 22. When a user uses an SSH (Secure Shell) client to connect to that port, that client can use the SSH protocol to establish a secure, encrypted connection, allowing the user to login to the Freeway.
Note: TCP/IP port 23 is open on most unsecured Freeway systems, and is closed (disallowed) on most secured Freeways. On secured Freeways, users are expected to use SSH (TCP/IP port 22) for login access (see Section 3.7.2).
Note: TCP/IP port 80 is open on some unsecured Freeway systems, but is closed (disallowed) on most secured Freeways. On secured Freeways, users are expected to use HTTPS (TCP/IP port 443) for web access. (see Section 3.7.6).
Note: TCP/IP port 199 is open on most unsecured Freeway systems, and is closed (disallowed) on most secured Freeways, because most secured Freeway systems have SNMP disabled.
Some Freeways are configured to listen on TCP/IP port 443. When a client such as an https-capable webbrowser connects to that port, it can use the HTTPS protocol to establish a secure, encrypted connection with the webserver daemon in the Freeway. The webserver daemon in the Freeway will then accept HTTPS webpage requests from the client, and return webpages to it, following the HTTPS protocol. See also Section 3.7.4.
Note: TCP/IP port 513 is open on most unsecured Freeway systems, and is closed (disallowed) on most secured Freeways. On secured Freeways, users are expected to use SSH (TCP/IP port 22) for login access (see Section 3.7.2).
Most Freeways are configured to listen on TCP/IP port 8208 (hex 0x2010) for connections to the Freeway daemon. (That port number is the default, but it might be different on a particular Freeway if an administrator has changed the wellknownport parameter of the /tmp/boot/muxcfg configuration file.) Client programs which connect to this port can use Protogate's DLI/TSI packet commands to configure, enable, completely control, and send and receive data through the serial link ports on the ICP boards installed in that Freeway. See the Freeway Client-Server Interface Control Document, Protogate document DC-900-1303, the Freeway Data Link Interface (DLI) Reference Guide, Protogate document DC-900-1385, and the Freeway Transport Subsystem Interface (TSI) Reference Guide, Protogate document DC-900-1386, for more details.
Some Freeways are configured to listen for datagram packets on UDP/IP port 123. That allows NTP (Network Time Daemon) processes on any systems within network reach of that Freeway to use the NTP protocol to communicate with the NTP daemon in the Freeway. Those NTP daemons can share information with the Freeway, and with their pooled resources; together all the NTP systems (including the Freeway) can determine the best possible estimate of the correct time, even if some of the hardware clocks in some of those systems are not accurate.
Note: UDP/IP port 161 is open on most unsecured Freeway systems, and is closed (disallowed) on most secured Freeways, because most secured Freeway systems have SNMP disabled.
Some Freeways are configured to enable a syslogd daemon, which may be configured to listen for syslog request datagrams on UDP/IP port 514. By sending datagram packets containing syslog commands to a Freeway's syslog port, another system can communicate with the Freeway's syslogd daemon, and write log entries into the Freeway's log files.
This chapter contains general information to aid in understanding this document.
Table 4-1. Acronym definitions
|DLI||Data Link Interface|
|FTP||File Transfer Protocol|
|HTTP||HyperText Transfer Protocol|
|HTTPS||HyperText Transfer Protocol, Secure|
|ICP||Intelligent Communication Processor|
|NTP||Network Time Protocol|
|PPS||Ports, Protocols, and Services|
|SFTP||Secure File Transfer Protocol|
|SMUX||SNMP Multiplex protocol|
|SNMP||Simple Network Management Protocol|
|SRA||Server Resident Application|
|TCP/IP||Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol|
|TSI||Transport Subsystem Interface|
|UDP/IP||User Datagram Protocol / Internet Protocol|
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